Pediatric & Squint Ophthalmology

“Personalized care for every age, every stage”

What is Paediatric Ophthalmology?

Paediatric ophthalmology is one of the department of ophthalmology that deals on treating the various ophthalmic problems in children’s belonging to the age groups from ‘just born’ to ‘teens’ as well as for adults with strabismus.

Research shows that 1 out of 6 kids has vision related issues. The Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus Service provides comprehensive primary care for the diagnosis and management of infant and child vision and common childhood vision disorders. It also performs surgery to correct ocular misalignment and double vision in children and adults.

The child must go for an eye checkup if the following symptoms are noticeable

  • Crossed eyes/Lazy eye.
  • Injury to the eye.
  • Cataract.
  • Keeps object close to his eyes.
  • Not being able to see the blackboard at school.
  • One or both parents wear glasses.
  • Feeling scratchy, itching or burning sensation in the eyes.
  • Drooping of upper eyelids.
  • Small or Big eyes
  • Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) screening.
MMJ Services - Pediatric

MMJ Services - Pediatric

MMJ Services - Pediatric

Common Vision issues in children

Strabismus – A misalignment of the eyes that affects 2-4% of the population; it is often associated with amblyopia. The inward turning gaze commonly referred to as “crossed-eyes” is an example of strabismus. The term strabismus applies to other types of misalignments, including an upward, downward, or outward turning eye.

Amblyopia (lazy eye) – This occurs when the vision of one eye is significantly better than the other eye, and the brain begins to rely on the better eye and ignore the weaker one. Amblyopia affects 4% of the population and is clinically diagnosed when the refractive error of one eye is more than 1.5 diopters different than the other eye.

Retinopathy of Prematurity – It is a serious condition, developing in premature babies, which can damage the retina and unless properly managed, can cause irreversible blindness at an early age. Very low birth weight babies and those with exposure to high oxygen are at greater risk.

Pediatric cataracts – A cataract is an opacity that develops in the crystalline lens of the eye or in its envelope. Cataract in the child’s eye leads to vision loss and needs early management to prevent further problems like amblyopia. Surgery is done for its removal and depending on age, an intraocular lens may be implanted.

Pediatric glaucoma – High pressure in the eye leading to damage to the optic nerve is found in 0.1 – 0.2 % of pediatric patients. It may present with big eyes, watering or may have no symptoms at all. It requires early diagnosis and management.

Abnormal vision development – Both the eyes may not work together due to developmental anomalies and problems infusion. They require expert diagnosis and early management to prevent problems later in life.

Genetic disorders – This often causes eye problems for affected children. Since approximately 30% of genetic syndromes affect the eyes, an examination by a pediatric ophthalmologist can help with the diagnosis of genetic conditions.

Congenital malformations – This affecting vision or the tear drainage duct system can be evaluated and possibly surgically corrected by a pediatric ophthalmologist.

Orbital tumors – Desmoids tumors are more common at a young age. They need to be evaluated and a proper treatment plan is formulated according to individual patient findings.

Convergence insufficiency – Accommodative insufficiency and asthenopia They need to be evaluated and proper treatment plan is formulated according to individual patient findings.

Evaluation of visual issues – In education is vital in a child facing a sudden deterioration of academic performance, which may be due to undiagnosed vision problems and may require glasses to correct refractive error.

Refractive errors such as myopia (near-sightedness), hypermetropia (farsightedness), and astigmatism can often be corrected with prescriptions for glasses or contact lenses.

A full complement of therapeutic modalities are available, including treatment for:

  • Tonopen.
  • Perkins handheld Applanation tonometer.
  • Koeppe direct gonioscopy (for pediatric angle assessment).
  • Humphrey visual field analyzer.
  • Optical coherence tomography (OCT).
  • Anterior Segment OCT.
  • Ultrasound Biomicroscopy (UBM).
  • Fundus photography unit (for stereoscopic disc photography).


Accurate Tonometry instrumentation like Goldmann Applanation Tonometer, Perkins Tonometer, i. care No Anaesthesia Tonometer and Non-Contact Tonometer. – To measure the Intraocular pressure.
  • Refractive errors (nearsightedness, farsightedness, and astigmatism)
  • Amblyopia (“lazy eye”) evaluation and treatment
  • Strabismus (crossed eyes, wandering eyes)
  • Abnormal fusion, depth perception, and other sensory abnormalities Double vision
  • Infections or inflammations of the eye and orbit (e.g., conjunctivitis, cellulitis)
  • Blocked tear ducts.
  • Congenital malformation of the eye and orbit.
  • Retinopathy of Prematurity.
  • Juvenile cataracts.
  • Injuries to the eye.
  • Eye problems associated with genetic conditions.
  • Eye screening for juvenile diabetics and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Eye problems associated with thyroid disorders.
  • Adjustable sutures.
  • Topical anesthesia in selected adult strabismus patients.
  • Pre-operative prism adaptation to increase surgical precision.
  • Binocular vision assessments.
  • Pediatric contact lens services for selected eye disorders.

Pediatric Ophthalmologists — The Best Care For Children

The Paediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus service of M. M. Joshi Eye Institute offers diagnosis and treatment of a broad range of eye diseases and vision problems in children and adolescents including adults suffering from Strabismus.

Dr. Deepti Joshi

Pediatric Ophthalmology Specialist

Dr. Anjana Kuri

Anterior Segment