Frequently Ask Questions
At M.M.JOSHI EYE INSTITUTE, We know how important it is for you to feel comfortable about your surgery. If you have a question we haven’t answered, Please call us at (+ 91) 836 2228431, 32, 33. A member of our medical staff will gladly help you.
- Ans: Cataracts are a clouding of the natural lens of the eye. They develop slowly over time and are a part of aging in many adults over 60. Cataracts may develop earlier due to genetic factors, certain medications and medical conditions.
- Ans: An eye care provider can tell you whether a cataract is forming, usually long before you notice any symptoms. Common symptoms include:
- Seeing glare or halos around headlights at night
- Difficulty seeing at night
- Needing more light to read
- Blurry vision that can’t be fixed by changing your glasses or contacts prescription
- Loss of color intensity
- cloudy, fuzzy, foggy or filmy vision
- Ans: We recommend cataract surgery only when vision problems are impacting daily activities.
- Ans: The normal process includes:
- Initial consultation: includes checking vision and dilating eyes. The surgeon will discuss all aspects of eye health with the patient and examine the eyes to determine if cataract surgery is the right choice. We will take more precise measurements of your eye and the surgeon will discuss lens options with you.
- Surgery: You are awake throughout the procedure. Drops are used to numb the eye surface for the surgery. The incision is so tiny that it doesn’t need any sutures; it is self-sealing.
- Next-day visit: Surgeon checks that all is well.
- One-weeks later: Final post-operative visit. If having cataract surgery on the second eye, the process begins again.
- Ans: Yes. We recommend that you eat a good meal before arriving to hospital and bring a snack or bagged lunch.
- Ans: Patients with cataracts see their world through a yellow tint. It’s just like wearing yellow-tinted (“blue-blocker”) sunglasses. These glasses block colors from the lower end of the color spectrum like blues and violets. When the cataract is removed and replaced with a clear implant, you will see these unfamiliar colors again. This may be much more dramatic for some patients than others, depending on the cataract.
- Ans: Patients often enjoy a dramatic change in their ability to see light, colors and fine details within 24 hours after surgery. Most people experience no pain and enjoy a rapid recovery. Vision can continue to improve for two weeks.
- Ans: All lenses generally will improve vision. Vision correction depends on the replacement lens you choose. Many people still need glasses after cataract surgery, most often for reading.
- Ans: Yes! Most insurance plans cover the cost of cataract surgery.
- Ans: Laser vision correction is an outpatient procedure to correct “refractive errors” in your eyes. That’s when the shape of your eye incorrectly bends light as it enters your eye, resulting in blurry vision. This leads to being near-sighted or far-sighted. The surgery uses a “cool ultraviolet laser” to reshape the cornea, the clear layer of tissue that covers the front of your eye and through which light enters. The surgery corrects the refractive error, eliminating your need for glasses or contacts to correct your vision.
- Ans: Many people who are near-sighted, far-sighted or have astigmatism are good candidates for laser vision correction surgery such as LASIK or PRK. People who are not good candidates include:
- People who are younger than 21.
- People whose contact lens or glasses prescriptions have changed in the past year.
- People whose hormones are fluctuating due to diseases such as diabetes.
- Women who are pregnant, are breastfeeding or have been breastfeeding in the previous three to six months.
- People who have autoimmune diseases (like lupus or rheumatoid arthritis), are immunodeficient (have HIV, for instance) or are taking some medications (like steroids). These can all prevent proper healing after the surgery.
- Ans: The first visit is called the pre-operative appointment, or pre-op, and typically lasts 2.5-3 hours. The appointment includes a full eye exam, so you will have thorough testing of your eyes, you will be dilated and you will get to meet your surgeon!
After that exam, your doctor will talk to you about whether the surgery could help your vision.
- Ans: Yes. Most of our patients elect to have both eyes done in one visit. However, this decision should be discussed during your pre-operative appointment.
- Ans: No. Your eye is carefully anesthetized with drops before the surgery. You won’t feel any pain during the procedure. If you choose, we can often prescribe a sedative to help you relax during the surgery. Some patients report minor discomfort after the surgery.
- Ans: The laser portion of the surgery takes about one minute per eye. However, you can expect to be in the laser suite for 15 to 30 minutes per eye, and to be at the hospital for about two hours on the day of surgery.
- Ans: LASIK and PRK procedures are performed in an outpatient setting and are usually painless. You will be able to go home right after surgery with sunglasses.
Most people can start their regular activities within 2 weeks, driving typically within 24 hours for LASIK (may be longer for PRK up to 4-5 days) and they can go back to work after 1 day.
- Ans: You may experience some normal side effects from the surgery in the first few hours or days, but they will heal over time. Side effects may include:
- Light sensitivity, which can last for a few hours up to a couple of days.
- Itchy, scratchy eyes, but it is important not to rub your eyes for the first two months after surgery. Preservative-free artificial tears can help your eyes feel more comfortable.
- Dry eyes, which may be caused by the procedure affecting how your eye naturally produces tears. Artificial tears can help. Symptom can last for a few months after the surgery, usually improving within six to 12 months.
- Ans: Not significantly. While you must be 21 or older for laser vision correction surgery, there is no other age requirement. If you are in your mid-40s or older, laser vision correction will correct your distance vision, but you will still need reading glasses. Younger patients can expect to enjoy good near and distance vision, but will likely need reading glasses in their 40s or 50s.
- Ans: Most people have long lasting results. However, there can be variability. It will vary according to the age you have the refractive surgery as well as the potential correction.
- Ans: No reputable surgeon can promise that you will have 20/20 vision or be forever free of glasses or contact lenses after the surgery. Each eye is unique, and not all eyes heal in the same way.
The overwhelming majority of our patients are very happy with the results of their first laser vision correction surgery.
- Ans: Both contact lenses and LASIK are very safe, although there is a small risk of complications from both of them.
- Ans: The skills and experience of our surgeons ensure that laser vision correction surgery at our institute is extremely safe. But complications — while rare — can happen with any surgery. Rare complications might include corneal flap complications, corneal haze, under-correction or over-correction, impaired night vision, possible continuing need for corrective lenses and the need for reading glasses.
- Ans: Glaucoma is a disease of the optic nerve, a structure that connects the eye to the brain. The nerve is composed of 1.2 million fibers that originate in the retina. If the optic nerve is damaged from any cause, visual signals from the eye cannot reach the brain, leading to vision loss.
- Ans: In glaucoma, the optic nerve fibers degenerate over time. The nerve then remodels, or changes shape, as the tissue is lost – this process is called “cupping.” These nerve changes occur in characteristic patterns which are distinct from other optic nerve diseases and can be identified during a dilated eye exam. Uncontrolled glaucoma is a progressive disease characterized by increased cupping over time.
- Ans: In general, the fibers that are responsible for peripheral vision are affected first, and those maintaining central vision are affected late in the disease. As a result, most people with glaucoma will maintain vision straight ahead in at least one eye. Unfortunately, people may not notice changes in their peripheral vision in their everyday life, and so they may be unaware of a problem until they already have advanced damage.
The optic nerve is an extension of the brain – like the brain and spinal cord, the optic nerve does not regenerate. As a result, any vision lost secondary to optic nerve damage is permanent. This is why early detection and treatment are absolutely essential for preventing blindness from glaucoma.
- Ans: This is a complicated question which many researchers, are trying to understand. From ongoing research, we know that genetics, eye pressure and blood flow are all involved.
While high eye pressure (over 21 mm Hg) is commonly associated with glaucoma, it is not part of the definition of glaucoma. A person can develop glaucoma at normal eye pressures (13 to 20 mm Hg). For this reason, optic nerve examination is the key to diagnosis.
- Ans: Glaucoma can be diagnosed with a complete eye examination. This includes measuring vision and eye pressure and having a dilated eye examination to properly evaluate the optic nerve.
If any of these parameters are abnormal (for example, high eye pressure or a suspicious appearing optic nerve), further testing will be done.
- Ans: Glaucoma is a chronic disease. Using your eye drops faithfully and having regular examinations to monitor the eye pressure and optic nerve are the two most important parts of glaucoma care. Once the eye pressure is controlled, it will be monitored every 3-6 months. This is essential because pressure can increase over time despite medications. Since even moderately high eye pressure rarely causes pain, you will not be able to tell if your pressure is elevated and need your doctor to check it on a regular basis.
Be prepared for regular checks of your optic nerve visual field. While we know visual fields can be hard to take, they are particularly sensitive at detecting changes if you already have an abnormal visual field. Glaucoma is not about a pressure. While we take into account a lot of parameters to pick a general target for your pressure, everyone is different and each nerve reacts differently to pressure. Treatment is a dynamic process, and we continually reassess our goals based on how the eye is responding to certain levels of pressure. If your nerve or field changes, we will adjust our treatment to lower your pressure even further using surgery (trabeculectomy).
- Ans: Misalignment (deviation) of two eyes. It can be constant (present all the time) or intermittent.
- Ans: Loss of coordination between the muscle of the two eyes leads to misalignment .Other causes are refractive errors, paralysis and trauma.
- Ans: When both eyes see a object simultaneously from a slight different angle, they are fused by brain to form a single 3D image, possible with straight eyes only.
- Ans: Mild squint during initial 3-4 weeks of life is common if deviation present after 1 month it should be checked deviation can start at 6 month – 2 years of age or it can be first evident in adult also.
- Preserve / restore vision.
- Straightening of eyes.
- Restore 3D Vision.
- Ans: Earlier the better!!
In childhood early treatments improves / restore vision & 3D vision.
In adults & in late cases Amblyopia(LAZY EYE) develops where visual recovery is not guaranteed, surgery will depend on patient’s need and will be only for cosmetic correction.
- Patching Therapy & Muscle Exercise.
- Ans: Glasses are helpful in children and frequent follow up is required, glasses cannot replace the need of surgery (if needed).
- Ans: Patching therapy is to increase the vision of amblyopic “LAZY” eye. Patching can straighten eye in few types of squint only but yes increased vision can improve the surgical outcome.
- Ans: Squint surgery is performed of extra ocular muscle (6 in each eye). Surgery can be performed on both the eyes simultaneously depending on type of squint and amount of deviation.
- Ans: In children upto 12–14 years, general anaesthesia is required. After 14 years surgery can be completed in local anaesthesia.
- Ans: Absorbable sutures are used which are rarely required to be removed, they dissolve.
- Ans: Over correction, under correction,
In very rare cases : globe perforation leading to Endophthalmitis & RD (rare 1:3500 surgery).
- Ans: Success rate depends on type of squint, time of squint surgery and vision. It ranges from 60–70 % to 100%
Diabetic Retinopathy FAQ
- Ans: Fluctuation in vision. The excess sugar in diabetics can cause this condition. A good control of blood sugar is recommended to minimize this problem.
- Ans: Diabetic retinopathy: This disease is a leading cause of blindness in American adults. It is caused by changes in the blood vessels of the retina. In some people with diabetic retinopathy, retinal blood vessels may swell and leak fluid. In other people, abnormal new blood vessels grow on the surface of the retina. These changes may result in vision loss or blindness.
- Ans: Anyone with diabetes. The longer someone has diabetes, the more likely he or she is to get diabetic retinopathy. Nearly half of all people with diabetes will develop some degree of diabetic retinopathy during their lifetime.
- Ans: SP_143If you have diabetes, you are also at risk for other diabetic eye diseases. Studies show that you are twice as likely to get a cataract as a person who does not have the disease. Also, cataracts develop at an earlier age in people with diabetes. Cataracts can usually be treated by surgery. Glaucoma may also become a problem. A person with diabetes is nearly twice as likely to get glaucoma as other adults. And, as with diabetic retinopathy, the longer you have had diabetes, the greater your risk of getting glaucoma. Glaucoma may be treated with medications, laser, or other forms of surgery.
- Ans: If you have diabetes mellitus, your body does not use and store sugar properly. High blood-sugar levels can damage blood vessels in the retina, the nerve layer at the back of the eye that senses light and helps to send images to the brain. The damage to retinal vessels is referred to as diabetic retinopathy.
- Ans: Most sight-threatening diabetic problems can be prevented by laser treatment if it is given early enough. It is important to realize however, that laser treatment aims to save the sight you have, not to make it better. The laser, a beam of high intensity light, can be focused with extreme precision. So the blood vessels that are leaking fluid into the retina can be sealed.
- Ans: Uncontrolled blood sugar can result in cataract formation.
- Ans: Yes. This is the most important sign of diabetic retinopathy. In early stages, the bleeding is very minimal, in the form of small aneurysms. These areas may leak. In later stages, the retina loses its blood supply and new blood vessels grow. These new blood vessels are very weak and cause bleeding inside the eye.
- Ans: In early stages, an angiogram is done to detect the sites of bleeding and proper and timely laser treatment to clog these sites can prevent further loss of your vision. In later stages, surgery is done to remove the blood.
- Ans: Yes. Bleeding and then scarring inside the eye results in retinal detachment due to traction.
- Ans: Yes. If new vessels start growing in the angle (drainage area for the eye fluid), a type of glaucoma called “neovascular glaucoma” develops. This is very difficult to manage.
- Ans: Yes. End result of uncontrolled diabetic retinopathy is permanent blindness.
- Ans: A routine follow-up with your ophthalmologist and early and proper treatment is recommended to prevent this blindness. Depending on your initial examination, you may need examination every 3 months to once a year. Along with an eye examination, a good control of your blood sugar is very important.
- Ans: Most sight loss from diabetic retinopathy can be prevented but it is vital that it is diagnosed early. You may not realize that there is anything wrong with your eyesight, so regular eye checks are extremely important.
- Ans: People with diabetes should schedule eye exams at least once a year. More frequent medical eye exams may be necessary after the diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy. You should have your eyes checked promptly if you have visual changes that affect only one eye; last more than a few days; and not associated with a change in your blood sugar.
- Ans: Pregnant women with diabetes should get an eye exam in the first trimester because retinopathy can progress quickly during pregnancy.
- Ans: If you need to be examined for glasses, it is important that your blood sugar be in consistent control for several days when you see your ophthalmologist. Glasses that work well when the blood sugar is out of control will not work well when sugar is stable. Rapid changes in blood sugar can cause fluctuating vision in both eyes even if retinopathy is not present.
- Ans: Finding and treating the disease early, before it causes vision loss or blindness, is the best way to control diabetic eye disease. Therefore, if you have diabetes, make sure you get a dilated eye examination at least once a year.